Data set creator(s): Mark Losleben
For data content questions, contact Niwot LTER data manager
For methodology questions, contact Jennifer Morse
INSTAAR, University of Colorado
1560 30th St., UCB 450
Boulder, CO 80309-0450
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1. Use our data freely. All Niwot LTER data products (except some recent data sets for which metadata but not data are available) are released to the public and may be freely copied, distributed, edited, remixed, and built upon under the condition that you provide acknowledgement as described below.
2. Give proper acknowledgement. Publications, models and data products that make use of these data sets must include proper acknowledgement, including citing data sets in a similar way to citing a journal article. See http://www.datacite.org/whycitedata). The following acknowledgment should accompany any publication or citation of these data: Logistical support and/or data were provided by the NSF supported Niwot Ridge Long-Term Ecological Research project and the University of Colorado Mountain Research Station
3. Let us know how you will use the data. The data set creators and Niwot LTER would appreciate hearing of any plans to use the data set. Consider consultation or collaboration with data set creators.
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Climatological data were collected from a Niwot Ridge climate station (D1 at 3743 m) throughout the year. Parameters measured were temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed and run of wind. The station was instrumented with a thermohygrograph (regularly calibrated and checked with maximum and minimum thermometers and psychrometers), which was equipped with a Bourdon tube (to measure temperature) and a banjo-spread hair element (to measure relative humidity). The thermohygrograph was situated in a white, all wood, louvered Stevenson screen which was oriented with the door facing north. Solar radiation was recorded on a bimetalic strip mechanical actinometer. Ninety percent of solar radiation from 360 to 2000 nm was transmitted through the instrument's glass dome. Wind speed (peak gust) was measured with a 3-cup, AC-generating anemometer that continuously recorded onto an Esterline Angus strip chart recorder. Run of wind was measured with a Belfort totalizing cup anenometer with a counter (at a height of approximately 3 meters above ground). Average wind speed was calculated from the peak gust trace. The thermohygrograph and actinometer both used wind-up or battery-driven clock drives that rotated the recording chart on a right cylindrical drum with a fixed period between 24 h and 861 h depending on the gears used. These clock mechanisms were virtually identical and therefore completely interchangeable among the instruments.
Study site was D1 (located on Niwot Ridge 2.6 km east of the Continental Divide). Original data are stored with the NWT LTER data manager and at the Mountain Research Station.
1982-1-1 to 1988-1-31
maximum air temperature, minimum air temperature, mean air temperature, maximum relative humidity, minimum relative humidity, mean relative humidity, maximum wind speed, mean wind speed, run of wind, total solar radiation, solar radiation as percent of solar constant
Elevation: 3750 m
Niwot Ridge (USFS - UNESCO Biosphere Reserve)
Located in: USFS - UNESCO Biosphere Reserve
(Click to learn more about these locations)
More data from: D1
Core Data Set: No
EasyEntry software was used to get the data contained in the Losleben reports (listed above) into an electronic form. Hard copies of these are on file with the NWT LTER information manager. The resulting files were further processed and archived on the NWT LTER server.
Metadata for the precipiation data contained in these reports can be found in:
Metadata for D1 climatological data from other sources can be found in the files:
The Losleben reports were generated from data read from IBM computer cards. Prior to being keypunched onto the computer cards, the temperature, relative humidity, and wind data were read directly off their drum charts. The solar radiation data were obtained by measuring the area under the curve for each day on the weekly actinograph drum chart which was then multiplied by an adjustment factor unique to to each instrument to produce the daily solar flux in Langleys. These values were converted to MJ/m^2 during processing on niwot.colorado.edu. The Bourdon tube is accurate to within 0.5 degrees C, with a lag time of a few minutes when adjusting to rapid temperature changes. The wind speed anenometer is accurate to within 2 m/second.
The actinometer is accurate to within 5%. Winter and spring readings may be increased by reflected radiation from the snow resulting in a recorded value greater than the solar constant.
The reliability of the clock mechanisms that runs all the recorders are greatly reduced in winter because of blowing snow, extremely low temperatures, and only weekly maintenance visits. Due to these environmental problems, users of this data should read the comments in this section carefully.
The run of wind for January 08, 1983 is the first record for run of wind at the climate station. The exact date the instrument was installed is not known, therefore the number of qualifying days is represented by a missing value.
The wind speed cups were replaced on May 26, 1983.
The wind speed scale was changed on February 3, 1982 to 0-100 MPH.
The wind speed scale was changed on February 4, 1982 to 0-200 MPH.
The wind speed scale was changed on May 27, 1982 to 0-100 MPH.
A new run of wind counter was installed on August 4, 1987.
The following comments concerning wind speed were taken from the data reports. Maximum and minimum values were originally reported in miles per hour, and have been converted to m/s.
12/2/83, partial day, gust=25
12/6/83, partial day, gust=34
12/13/83, partial day, gust=34, average=13
12/27/83, partial day, gust=9, average=5
12/30/83, partial day, gust=34, average=15
2/8/84, data from 1330-2400 MST, gust=18, average=12
2/13/84, data from 1400-1500 MST, gust=32
2/21/84, data from 1326-2400 MST, gust=24, average=9
3/8/84, data for 0000-0300 MST, gust=34
3/13/84, data for 1400-2400 MST, gust=26, average=14
3/25/84, data for 1000-2400 MST, gust=17, average=8
5/10/84 through 5/22/84 1200 MST, counter broken
1/2/85 through 1/6/85, period maximum=32, period minimum=0
1/7/85, data from 1150 MST, gust=16, average=4
1/27/85 through 1/31/85, period maximum=30, period minimum=0
2/1/85 through 2/10/85, period maximum=34, period minimum=0
2/11/85, data from 1200 MST, gust=31, average=17
4/22/85, distance is a minimum, cups found frozen, run=3808, qualifying days=6
4/25/85 through 4/26/85, average probably less than 4
6/13/85 through 6/16/85, period maximum=28, period minimum=0
6/17/85, data taken from 1050 MST, gust=13, average=4
8/5/85, data for partial day only, gust=17, average=5
8/18/85, data for first 12 hours of day, gust=18, average=7
9/20/85, partial day, frozen cups, gust=13, average=4
9/21/85, partial day, frozen cups, gust=13, average=14
9/23/85, partial day, clock stopped, gust=33, average=17
10/13/85, data for partial day, gust=8, average=4
10/14/85, data for partial day, gust=29, average=17
11/16/85 through 11/17/85, period maximum=38, period minimum=2
11/20/85 through 11/24/85, period maximum=37, period minimum=2
12/9/85, data for partial day, gust=8, average=4
12/16/85, data for partial day, gust=33, average=21
12/10/85 through 12/15/85, period maximum=37, period minimum=3
1/4/86 through 1/5/86, period maximum=42, period minimum=5
1/6/86, data from 1330 MST, gust=14, average=6
1/27/86, data from 1330 MST, gust=27, average=17
1/20/86, data for first half of day, gust=38, average=18
2/6/86, data for first half of day, gust=7, average=2
2/17/86, data for last half of day, gust=32, average=12
2/7/86 through 2/16/86, period maximum=44, period minimum=2
3/7/86, data for first half of day, gust=14, average=5
3/9/86, data for last half of day, gust=21, average=10
3/20/86, value is a minimum for time period, run=2136
4/21/86, data from 1530 MST, gust=18, average=12
4/28/86, line malfunction, data for partial day, gust=31, average=15
4/29/86, line malfunction, data for partial day, gust=28, average=10
4/30/86, line malfunction, data for partial day, gust=26, average=10
5/1/86, equipment malfunction, values given are best estimates, gust=15, average=6
5/2/86, equipment malfunction, values given are best estimates, gust=13, average=7
5/3/86, equipment malfunction, values given are best estimates, gust=17, average=8
5/4/86, equipment malfunction, values given are best estimates, gust=27, average=10
5/5/86, equipment malfunction, values given are best estimates, gust=28, average=12
10/14/86, data based on 1315-2359 hrs only, gust=29, average=9
10/27/86, data based on 1230-2359 hrs only, gust=28, average=15
11/3/86, data based on 1300-2350 hrs only, gust=7, average=3
11/7/86, data based on 0001-2359 hrs only, gust=30, average=9
11/10/86, data based on 1430-2000 hrs only, gust=43, average=21
11/17/86, data based on 1320-2359 hrs only, gust=35, average=21
12/8/86, data based on 1300-2359 hrs only, gust=13, average=5
12/15/86, data based on 1200-2359 hrs only, gust=22, average=13
12/26/86, data based on 0001-0600 hrs only, gust=17, average=9
12/29/86, data based on 1200-2359 hrs only, gust=17, average=8
5/16/87, data based on 0001-1159 hrs only, gust=13, average=8
5/18/87, data based on 1200-2359 hrs only, gust=17, average=8
5/21/87, data based on partial day of data, gust=14, average=4
7/12/87, data from 0-2300 hrs only, gust=11, average=4
7/27/87, data from 0930 MST only, gust=11, average=2
9/3/87, data from 0915 MST, gust=16, average=8
After consulting the charts to resolve questions which arose during
data entry, Mark Losleben provided the following comments.
2/1/84, wind speed value is for partial day, gust=32, average=10
4/8/85, wind speed value is for partial day, gust=16, average=12
8/19/85, wind speed value is for partial day, gust=14, average=5
11/16/86, wind speed value is for partial day, gust=30, average=10
12/1/86, wind speed value is for partial day, gust=13, average=5
The following comments concerning solar radiation were taken from the data reports. Total values were originally reported in Langleys and have been converted to MJ/^2.
10/4/82, data from sunrise to 0930 MST only, total=5.7
3/15/83, value low, missing 1.5 hours of data, total=15.1, percent=51
4/17/83, value from sunrise to 1214 MST only, total=18.9, percent=55
11/30/83, value 1230 MST on, total=5.4, percent=37
4/26/84, data for 1300 MST to sunset, total=13.1, percent=36
5/8/84, data for 1300 MST to sunset, total=14.4, percent=38
5/16/84, data for sunrise to 1100 MST, total=13.0, percent=33
6/5/84, data for 0930 MST to sunset, total=14.4, percent=35
11/8/85, snow covered instrument, total=2.8, percent=16
2/6/86, value is a minimum, clock stopped briefly, total=5.4, percent=29
4/7/86, data for first half of day, total=11.5, percent=35
4/14/86, data for second half of day, total=10.0, percent=30
The comment " TEMP: SINCE JUNE 1985, TEMPS REPORTED ARE 2 DEGREES COOLER THAN TRUE VALUE. STARTING 7/86, TEMPS REPORTED ARE ACCURATE" appeared on the July 1986 report. The data for this period were entered as reported and corrected on culter prior to further processing.
The period from December 18, 1982 through December 19, 1982 had a maximum temperature of -14, a minimum temperature of -21, and a mean temperature of -17.5
The period from December 18, 1982 through December 19, 1982 had a maximum relative humidity of 100, a minimum relative humidity of 28 and a mean relative humidity of 64.
The following comments accompanied periods of missing data for the indicated parameter. The original reports should be consulted to determine the cause of specific incidences.
Wind speed: pen failure, pen malfunction, frozen pen, pen ran out, chart ran out, paper ran out, clock froze, clock stopped, clock not working, clock malfunction, clock problems, line malfunction, recorder line broken, broken transmission line, broken line, wire disconnected, broken wires, rime ice on cups, cups blew off mast, machine malfunction, machine stopped running, recorder malfunction, instrument malfunction, equipment malfunction, electrical malfunction, wind sensor failure, sensor failure, lightning damage, battery hookup fell off.
Run of wind: counter malfunction, counter broken, cups stopped worn out bearing, frozen cups, cups buried under snow, snow covered, instrument broken, recorder malfunction, instrument malfunction.
Solar radiation: ink smeared, pen malfunction, pen failure, pen snowpacked, clock froze, clock stopped, clock malfunction, clock failure, instrument being calibrated, actinograph calibration, actinograph blew away, actinograph malfunction, equipment malfunction, machine malfunction, instrument snowpacked, dome snow covered.
Relative humidity: pen failure, pen malfunction, pen failure and smeared ink, snow packed instrument and pen malfunction, ink smeared, clock stopped, instrument packed with snow, snow packed element, snowpack interference, snow packed hairs, hairs changed, tracking bar malfunction, instrument malfunction, equipment malfunction.
Temperature: pen failure, pen malfunction, pen failure and smeared ink, ink smeared, snow blocked pen, instrument snowpacked, snowpacked, equipment malfunction, instrument malfunction, clock stopped, high values untraced.
climate, weather, meteorology, air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed, run of wind, D1, Niwot Ridge LTER, NWT, climatology, chart recorder, sensor, report data, long term
COL1. label=date, type=string, units=none, missing value indicator=NaN, minimum=1982-01-01, maximum=1988-01-31, precision=l, definition=date (yyyy-mm-dd)
COL2. label=year, type=integer, units=none, missing value indicator=NaN, minimum=1982, maximum=1988, precision=l, definition=year (yyyy)
COL3. label=jday, type=integer, units=none, missing value indicator=NaN, minimum=0, maximum=366, precision=l, definition=Julian day
OL4. label=airtemp_max, type=real, units=celsius, missing value indicator=NaN, minimum=, maximum=, precision=, definition=maximum air temperature
COL5. label=airtemp_min, type=real, units=celsius, missing value indicator=NaN, minimum=, maximum=, precision=, definition=minimum air temperature
COL6. label=airtemp_avg, type=real, units=celsius, missing value indicator=NaN, minimum=, maximum=, precision=, definition=average air temperature
COL7. label=rh_max, type=real, units=percent, missing value indicator=NaN, minimum=, maximum=, precision=, definition=maximum relative humidity
COL8. label=rh_min, type=real, units=percent, missing value indicator=NaN, minimum=, maximum=, precision=, definition=minimum relative humidity
COL9. label=rh_avg, type=real, units=percent, missing value indicator=NaN, minimum=, maximum=, precision=, definition=average relative humidity
COL10. label=ws_max, type=real, units=meterPerSecond, missing value indicator=NaN, minimum=, maximum=, precision=, definition=maximum wind speed
COL11. label=ws_avg, type=real, units=meterPerSecond, missing value indicator=NaN, minimum=, maximum=, precision=, definition=average wind speed
COL12. label=run_wind, type=real, units=meter, missing value indicator=NaN, minimum=, maximum=,precision=, definition=run of wind
COL13. label=qwind, type=integer, units=none, missing value indicator=NaN, minimum=, maximum=, precision=, definition=qualifying code for run of wind
COL14. label=solrad_tot, type=real, units=megajoulePerMeterSquared, missing value indicator=NaN, minimum=, maximum=, precision=, definition=total solar radiation in MJ/m2
COL15. label=solrad_%cons, type=real, units=percent, missing value indicator=NaN, minimum=, maximum=, precision=, definition=solar radiation as percent of the solar constant for the day
*Note: To ask a question about data content, please contact the data manager HERE
To ask a question about methodology, please contact Jennifer Morse,
Marr, J.W. 1967. Data on mountain environments. I. Front Range, Colorado, sixteen sites, 1952-1953. University of Colorado Studies, Series in Biology 27, 110 pp.
Marr, J.W., A.W. Johnson, W.S. Osburn, and O.A. Knorr. 1968. Data on mountain environments. II. Front Range, Colorado, four climax regions, 1953-1958. University of Colorado Studies, Series in Biology 28, 169 pp.
Marr, J.W., J.M. Clark, W.S. Osburn, and M.W. Paddock. 1968. Data on mountain environments. III. Front Range, Colorado, four climax regions, 1959-1964. University of Colorado Studies, Series in Biology 29, 181 pp.
Barry, R.G. 1972. Climatic environment of the East Slope of the Colorado Front Range. University of Colorado, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research Occasional Paper 3, 206 pp.
Barry, R.G. 1973. A climatological transect on the East Slope of the Front Range, Colorado. Arctic and Alpine Research 5(2): 89-110.
Losleben, M.V. 1983. Climatological data from Niwot Ridge, East Slope, Front Range, Colorado, 1970-1982. University of Colorado Long-Term Ecological Research Data Report 83/10. 193 pp.
Losleben, M.V. 1984. Climatological data from Niwot Ridge, East Slope, Front Range, Colorado, 1983. University of Colorado Long-Term Ecological Research Data Report 84/3. 28 pp.
Barry, R.G. 1985. Growing season temperature characteristics, Niwot Ridge and the east slope of the Front Range, Colorado. University of Colorado Long-Term Ecological Data Report 85/6. 52 pp.
Losleben, M.V. 1985. Climatological data from Niwot Ridge, East Slope, Front Range, Colorado, 1984. University of Colorado Long-Term Ecological Research Data Report 85/3. 29 pp.
Barry, R.G. 1986. Mountain climate data for long-term ecological research. Pp 170-187 In: Proceedings of International Symposium on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and Mountain Meteorology, 20-24 March 1984, Beijing, China. Boston: American Meteorological Society.
Losleben, M.V. 1986. Climatological data from Niwot Ridge, East Slope, Front Range, Colorado, 1985. University of Colorado Long-Term Ecological Research Data Report 86/1. 29 pp.
Greenland, D. 1987. The climate of Niwot Ridge. University of Colorado Long-Term Ecological Research Data Report 87/7. 57 pp.
Halfpenny, J.C., and J. Clark. 1988. Climate calendars. BioScience 38:399-405.
Losleben, M.V. 1988. Climatological data from Niwot Ridge, East Slope, Front Range, Colorado, 1987. University of Colorado Long-Term Ecological Research Data Report 88/3. 48 pp.
Greenland, D. 1989. The climate of Niwot Ridge, Front Range, Colorado, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research 21:380-391.
Losleben, M.V. 1989. Climatological data from Niwot Ridge, East Slope, Front Range, Colorado, 1988. University of Colorado Long-Term Ecological Research Data Report 89/2. 86 pp.
The documentation section of this file was generated by Mike Hartman using http://niwot.colorado.edu/eecontent_Images/related_files/exec/.extracttool2?c-1mtape.ml as a template. Data were appended to the metadata, and the file was placed under SCCS control on 24 August 2000.[MAH 24 August 2000] URL locations for related data were updated on 26 September 2000.[MAH 26 September 2000] The title was updated, labels were shortened and definitions added.[HCH 21 August 2015] Columns were reordered, new labels applied, and logger and year columns added.[HCH 24 November 2015] Temperature units changed to celsius.[HCH 27 April 2017]
Losleben, Mark. 2018. Climate data for D1 chart recorder from 1982-1-1 to 1988-1-31, daily. http://niwot.colorado.edu
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Cooperative Agreement #DEB-1637686. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in the material are those of the author(s) and do not necesarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
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