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Niwot Ridge LTER

The Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site was established in 1980 with support from the National Science Foundation. The topography, climate and biota of the research site are representative of alpine ecosystems in the southern Rocky Mountains, including extensive expanses of alpine tundra and subalpine coniferous forests, as well as a cirque glacier (Arikaree Glacier), a variety of glacial landforms, lakes and moraines, cirques, talus slopes, patterned ground, and permafrost.

The LTER site includes Niwot Ridge, the southern-adjacent Green Lakes Valley, and the University of Colorado’s Mountain Research Station (MRS). Niwot Ridge is part of the Roosevelt National Forest and has been designated a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Biosphere Reserve and an Experimental Ecology Reserve (USDA Forest Service). The Green Lakes Valley is a part of the City of Boulder Watershed. The MRS is an interdisciplinary facility devoted to the advancement of the study of mountain ecosystems, providing research and educational opportunities for scientists, students, and the general public.

A context-sensitive topographic relief map can be used to access the scenic views of the areas indicated above, as well as several others.

Also, learn about A1, B1, and Sugarloaf stations.

Niwot Ridge LTER

Photo credit: Bill Bowman

Major Location Divisions

  • Green Lakes Valley (City of Boulder Watershed)

    *Click on polygons and points for more information

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    View Second Order Green Lakes Valley 2 in a larger map

    In the 1930s, the University of Colorado began sensitive ecological and climate research in the Green Lakes Valley (GLV) within the City of Boulder Watershed. The GLV is a 2.3 km2 catchment, named for a series of five shallow paternoster lakes, the Green Lakes. The GLV lies immediately south of the western half of Niwot Ridge, and stretches from the Arikaree Glacier at its head (3798 m), southeast to the former mining camp of Albion on the valley floor. In order to protect water quality and to preserve the fragile alpine environment, the Boulder Watershed is closed to public access.

    Ownership: City of Boulder Watershed
    Associated Groups: City Of Boulder

    Research Locations

    • Green Lakes Valley (GLV)

      Intro

      • Data From: Green Lakes Valley

        Site Information:
        Bounding Coordinates
        Lower Left: 444838.29W, 4431993N
        Upper Right: 444838.29W, 4431993N
        Area: 2.3233 km2
        Min Elevation: 3567m
        Max Elevation: 4042m
        Mean Elevation: 3745m

        Summary:

        The GLV catchment is divided into an upper basin and a lower valley by a glaciated valley-step between Green Lakes 3 and 4.

        The Upper Basin: An east-facing glacial valley, headed on the Continental Divide in the Colorado Front Range, the upper basin is approximately 225 ha in area with an elevation ranging from 4084 m at the
        Continental Divide to 3515 m at the outlet of Green Lake 4. This section contains little vegetation, steep rock walls and talus slopes, a valley floor of glaciated bedrock, and many permanent snow patches, including Arikaree Glacier below the Continental Divide (Caine, 1995). Landcover type has been mapped in the field using expert knowledge in combination with the aerial photographs and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Bare rock makes up 29% of the basin area, talus 33%, vegetated soils 29%, the Arikaree glacier 4%; there are also two lakes in the upper basin, Green Lakes 4 and 5 (Erickson, 2004). Most of the surficial deposits are of Holocene age, accumulated since deglaciation about 12,000 years ago (Harbor, 1984).

        The Lower Valley: Includes a 5 km2 area between Green Lake 4 and the former mining camp of Albion. This lower section has more extensive vegetation and soil cover, and less exposed bedrock than the upper basin.

        Research and Setting:

        The continental, high mountain climate of the GLV has been recorded continuously at the D-1 meteorological station on Niwot Ridge for over 60 years and for shorter periods on the valley floor (Greenland, 1989). Mean annual temperature at D-1 is -3.7°C (Williams, 1996). South-facing slopes are warmer than north-facing slopes, which are underlain by discontinuous permafrost (Ives,1973). Almost 80% of the approximately 1000 mm of recorded annual precipitation falls as snow (Caine, 1996). The bulk snow pack temperature remains below 0°C until late spring, introducing a lag in the hydrological cycle by concentrating the release of melt water in a short, intense period of runoff (Caine, 1996).

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        Partner Groups:
        Boulder Critical Zone Observatory Institute Of Arctic and Alpine Research Associated Groups: City Of BoulderThe Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and Pawnee National Grassland
        *Click on polygons and points for more information


        View 3rd order GLV Green Lakes Valley in a larger map

        Green Lakes Valley
        Green Lakes Valley, looking west
        Topgraphy:

        The lower section has more extensive vegetation and soil cover, and less exposed bedrock.


        Land Use and habitat:

        Protected. Alpine tundra, treeline ecotone, oligotrophic alpine lakes, high-elevation streams, and extensive forested areas with at-risk seasonal snowpacks and former mining camp of Albion..

    • Albion

      Intro
      Biogeochemistry
      Climate
      Hydrology

      • Data From: Albion

        Site Information: Area: 7.097 km2
        Mean Elevation: 3250m

        Summary:

        The Albion site is locatedbelow treeline, on the valley floor at the eastern end of the GLV. Albion is a former mining townsite.

        Measurement and observation location(s): Abion data logger, Albion camp, Albion, Albion site, Lake Albion, Lake Albion inlet, Lake Albion spillway

        *Click on polygons and points for more information


        View Third Order Albion in a larger map

        Albion Map Key Albion
        Albion


      • Data for: biogeochemistry

        Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere). In particular, biogeochemistry is the study of the cycles of chemical elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, and their interactions with and incorporation into living things transported through earth scale biological systems in space through time. The field focuses on chemical cycles which are either driven by or have an impact on biological activity. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus cycles. Biogeochemistry is a systems science closely related to systems ecology.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information map Key

        ​Includes Albion Camp Site

        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Albion camp snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid
        Albion site water chemistry variables current observational point
        East of Lake Albion soil chemistry, physical properties historical observational centroid
        Lake Albion inlet water chemistry variables historical observational point
        Lake Albion spillway water chemistry variables historical observational point

      • Data for: climate

        Climate is a measure of the average pattern of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time. Climate is different from weather, in that weather only describes the short-term conditions of these variables in a given region.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV Albion CLIMATE in a larger map
        map Key

        ​Includes Albion Camp Site

        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Albion camp snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid
        Albion data logger climate variables current observational point

      • Data for: hydrology

        Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information

        View 4th Level GLV Albion HYDROLOGY in a larger map
        map Key

        ​Includes Albion Camp Site

        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Albion camp stream discharge current observational point
        Albion camp snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid
        Albion camp snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid
        Albion site water chemistry variables current observational point
        Lake Albion lake ice extent variables historical observational centroid
        Lake Albion inlet water chemistry variables historical observational point
        Lake Albion spillway water chemistry variables historical observational point
    • Martinelli

      Intro
      Animals
      Biogeochemistry
      Climate
      Geomorphology
      Hydrology
      Plants
      Soils

      • Data From: Martinelli

        Site Information: Area: 0.08 km2
        Mean Elevation: 3410m

        Summary:

        The 8-ha Martinelli catchment represents a snow-field dominated catchment and is located about 400 m from the Saddle site on Niwot Ridge; its outlet is at an elevation of 3,380 m. The Martinelli catchment has a poorly developed soil structure, little vegetation, and a deep winter snow cover [Caine, 1989].

        Research and Setting:


        Measurement and observation location(s): Martinelli basin outlet, Martinelli grid, Martinelli slope, Martinelli wells

        *Click on polygons and points for more information


        View Martinelli in a larger map

        Martinelli Map Key


      • Data for: animals

        Animal ecology
        Web definitions
        Ecology is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environment, such as the interactions organisms have with each other and with their abiotic environment. ...
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_Ecology

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV Marteinelli ANIMALS in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Martinelli grid small mammal disturbance historical observational point
        Martinelli slope esker, krummholz distances historical observational centroid
        Martinelli slope mite species composition historical observational centroid

      • Data for: biogeochemistry

        Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere). In particular, biogeochemistry is the study of the cycles of chemical elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, and their interactions with and incorporation into living things transported through earth scale biological systems in space through time. The field focuses on chemical cycles which are either driven by or have an impact on biological activity. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus cycles. Biogeochemistry is a systems science closely related to systems ecology.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Martinelli basin outlet water chemistry variables current observational point
        Martinelli slope soil chemistry, physical properties historical observational centroid
        Martinelli slope snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid

      • Data for: climate

        Climate is a measure of the average pattern of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time. Climate is different from weather, in that weather only describes the short-term conditions of these variables in a given region.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Martinelli slope snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid

      • Data for: geomorphology

        Geomorphology (from Greek: γῆ, ge, "earth"; μορφή, morfé, "form"; and λόγος, logos, "study") is the scientific study of landforms and the processes that shape them. Geomorphologists seek to understand why landscapes look the way they do, to understand landform history and dynamics and to predict changes through a combination of field observations, physical experiments and numerical modeling. Geomorphology is practiced within physical geography, geology, geodesy, engineering geology, archaeology and geotechnical engineering. This broad base of interest contributes to many research style and interests within the field.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT Martinelli GEOMORPH in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Martinelli slope map attributes historical observational centroid

      • Data for: hydrology

        Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV Martinelli HYDROLOGY in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Martinelli basin outlet stream discharge current observational point
        Martinelli basin outlet water chemistry variables current observational point
        Martinelli ground water wells ground water well variables current observational centroid of point cluster
        Martinelli lysimeters lysimeter variables current observational centroid of point cluster
        Martinelli slope snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid
        Martinelli slope snowpack ablation historical observational centroid
        Martinelli slope snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid

      • Data for: plantvegetation

        Plant/vegetation ecology is the study of plant distribution and abundances, plant responses to environmental factors, and the interactions among and between plants and other organisms in their environment. In plant ecology the focus may be on just one or a few particular species of interest, while in vegetation ecology, there is a stronger focus on dynamics within the plant community as a whole. At Niwot Ridge there is a rich history of plant and vegetation ecology, beginning with the characterization and mapping of alpine plant communities as early as the 1960s, moving later into more experimental and dynamic approaches to plant/vegetation ecology, often in the context of changing climatic and environmental conditions.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV Martinelli PLANTS in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Martinelli grid species composition historical observational centroid
        Martinelli slope esker, krummholz distances historical observational centroid
        Martinelli slope map attributes historical observational centroid

      • Data for: soil

        Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.[1]

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV Martinelli SOILS in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Martinelli slope soil chemistry, physical properties historical observational centroid
    • Arikaree

      Intro
      Biogeochemistry
      Climate
      Hydrology
      Soils

      • Data From: Arikaree

        Site Information: Area: 0.092 km2
        Mean Elevation: 3790m

        Summary:

        The 9-ha Arikaree glacier sits at the head of the valley and is the source of North Boulder Creek. The outflow of the Arikaree glacier drains into Green Lakes 5.

        Measurement and observation location(s): Arikaree, Arikaree cirque, Arikaree data logger, Arikaree Glacier

        *Click on polygons and points for more information


        View Arikaree in a larger map

        Arikaree Map Key Arikaree
        Arikaree Glacier, photo credit: Nel Caine


      • Data for: biogeochemistry

        Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere). In particular, biogeochemistry is the study of the cycles of chemical elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, and their interactions with and incorporation into living things transported through earth scale biological systems in space through time. The field focuses on chemical cycles which are either driven by or have an impact on biological activity. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus cycles. Biogeochemistry is a systems science closely related to systems ecology.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Arikaree Glacier soil chemistry, physical properties historical observational centroid
        Arikaree Glacier snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid
        Arikaree site water chemistry variables current observational point

      • Data for: climate

        Climate is a measure of the average pattern of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time. Climate is different from weather, in that weather only describes the short-term conditions of these variables in a given region.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV Arikaree CLIMATE in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Arikaree data logger temperature, radiation historical observational point
        Arikaree Glacier snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid

      • Data for: hydrology

        Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV Arikaree HYDROLOGY in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Arikaree Glacier snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid
        Arikaree Glacier snowpack ablation historical observational centroid
        Arikaree Glacier snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid
        Arikaree site water chemistry variables current observational point
        East face of Arikaree Peak snowpack ablation historical observational centroid

      • Data for: soil

        Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.[1]

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV Arikaree SOILS in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Arikaree Glacier soil chemistry, physical properties historical observational centroid
    • Navajo

      Intro
      Biogeochemistry
      Climate
      Hydrology

      • Data From: Navajo

        Site Information: Area: 0.418 km2
        Mean Elevation: 3730m

        Summary:

        Measurement and observation location(s): Navajo, Navajo bench, Navajo meadow

        *Click on polygons and points for more information


        View Navajo in a larger map

        Navajo Map Key


      • Data for: biogeochemistry

        Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere). In particular, biogeochemistry is the study of the cycles of chemical elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, and their interactions with and incorporation into living things transported through earth scale biological systems in space through time. The field focuses on chemical cycles which are either driven by or have an impact on biological activity. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus cycles. Biogeochemistry is a systems science closely related to systems ecology.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Navajo meadow water chemistry variables current observational point
        Navajo meadow snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid

      • Data for: climate

        Climate is a measure of the average pattern of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time. Climate is different from weather, in that weather only describes the short-term conditions of these variables in a given region.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV Navajo CLIMATE ‎ in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Navajo meadow snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid

      • Data for: hydrology

        Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV Navajo HYDROLOGY in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Navajo meadow water chemistry variables current observational point
        Navajo meadow snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid
        Navajo meadow snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid
    • Green Lake 2

      Intro
      Hydrology

      • Data From: Green Lake 2

        Site Information:

        Summary:

        Measurement and observation location(s): Green Lake 2

        Associated Groups: City Of Boulder
        *Click on polygons and points for more information


        View 3rd Order Green Lake 2 in a larger map

        Green Lake 2
        Green Lakes Valley with Green Lakes 4 (foreground), 3 (middle) and 2 (background); photo credit: JG Smith


      • Data for: hydrology

        Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV gl2 HYDROLOGY in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Green Lake 2 lake ice extent variables historical observational centroid
    • Green Lake 1

      Intro
      Biogeochemistry
      Hydrology

      • Data From: Green Lake 1

        Site Information: Area: 0.473 km2
        Mean Elevation: 3415m

        Summary:

        Green Lake 1 (GL1) is the easternmost of the five Green Lakes. Hydrological measurements include surface water chemistry from the outlet stream, sampled weekly in summer from 1985 through 2010, and stream flow at the outlet from 1985 through 2007. (Stream flow measurements were discontinued due to degradation of the V-notch weir after 2007. GL1 outlet sampling was discontinued due to lack of interest in the results after 2010). Limnology measurements were taken beginning in the summer of 2014. Sampling is conducted at the surface, 3 and 6 meters, for Chl-a, DOC, nutrient, Anion and Cation analysis. Zooplankton samples are taken with two vertical towns throughout the water column. Profiles of temperature, pH, DO and conductivity are performed throughout the water column.

        Measurement and observation location(s): Green Lake 1 outlet, Green Lake 1

        *Click on polygons and points for more information


        View Green Lake 1 in a larger map

        Green Lake 1 Map Key


      • Data for: biogeochemistry

        Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere). In particular, biogeochemistry is the study of the cycles of chemical elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, and their interactions with and incorporation into living things transported through earth scale biological systems in space through time. The field focuses on chemical cycles which are either driven by or have an impact on biological activity. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus cycles. Biogeochemistry is a systems science closely related to systems ecology.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV gl1 BIOGEOCHEMISTRY in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Green Lake 1 outlet water chemistry variables current observational point

      • Data for: hydrology

        Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV gl1 HYDROLOGY in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Green Lake 1 lake ice extent variables historical observational centroid
        Green Lake 1 outlet water chemistry variables current observational point
    • Green Lake 4

      Intro
      Aquatic
      Biogeochemistry
      Climate
      Hydrology
      Soils

      • Data From: Green Lake 4

        Site Information: Area: 2.209 km2
        Mean Elevation: 3550m

        Summary:

        The Green Lake 4 (GL4) climate station is located on the valley floor, approximately 400 meters south of Green Lake 4. Climate data begins in 1986. Temperature has been measured continuously; other measurements with shorter records include solar radiation, wind speed, wind direction, and relative humidity. Hydrologic data include daily stream flow from 1981 to the present from the outlet of GL4, ice thickness measurements, water chemistry from surface water sampling, and soil lysimeter and talus water sampling from a number of sites above and adjacent to GL4. Limnology measurements are taken at GL4 beginning at ice-out and continuing for six weeks. Sampling is conducted at the surface, 3 meters, 9 meters, and at the inlet and outlet for chlorophyll-a, dissolved organic carbon, nutrients, and anion and cation analyses. Zooplankton samples are taken with two vertical tows through the water column. Profiles of temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity are performed throughout the water column and at the GL4 inlet and outlet.

        Research and Setting:

        The Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) works in cooperation with the LTER in the Green Lakes Valley and has characterized the subsurface of the valley using Shallow Seismic Refraction. CZO also maintains a time lapse camera located above Green Lake 4.

        Measurement and observation location(s): Green Lake 4, Green Lake 4 data loggers (CR10-CR1000), Green Lake 4 outlet

        Partner Groups:
        Boulder Critical Zone Observatory Associated Groups: City Of Boulder
        *Click on polygons and points for more information


        View 3rd Order Green Lake 4 in a larger map

        Green Lake 4 Map Key Green Lake 4
        Green Lake 4


      • Data for: limnology

        Limnology (/lɪmˈnɒlədʒi/ lim-nol-ə-jee; from Greek λίμνη, limne, "lake" and λόγος, logos, "knowledge"), also called freshwater science, is the study of inland waters. It is often regarded as a division of ecology or environmental science. It covers the biological, chemical, physical, geological, and other attributes of all inland waters (running and standing waters, both fresh and saline, natural or man-made). This includes the study of lakes and ponds, rivers, springs, streams and wetlands.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV gl4 AQUATIC in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Green Lake 4 water chemistry, chlorophyll current/historical observational centroid

      • Data for: biogeochemistry

        Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere). In particular, biogeochemistry is the study of the cycles of chemical elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, and their interactions with and incorporation into living things transported through earth scale biological systems in space through time. The field focuses on chemical cycles which are either driven by or have an impact on biological activity. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus cycles. Biogeochemistry is a systems science closely related to systems ecology.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV gl4 BIOGEOCHEMISTRY in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Green Lake 4 water chemistry, chlorophyll current/historical observational centroid
        Green Lake 4 snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid
        Green Lake 4 inlet water chemistry variables current observational centroid
        Green Lake 4 inlet snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid
        Green Lake 4 outlet snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid
        Southeast of Green Lake 4 soil chemistry, physical properties historical observational centroid

      • Data for: climate

        Climate is a measure of the average pattern of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time. Climate is different from weather, in that weather only describes the short-term conditions of these variables in a given region.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV gl4 CLIMATE in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Green Lake 4 snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid
        Green Lake 4 water chemistry, chlorophyll current/historical observational centroid
        Green Lake 4 data logger climate variables current/historical observational point
        Green Lake 4 inlet snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid
        Green Lake 4 outlet snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid

      • Data for: hydrology

        Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV gl4 HYDROLOGY in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Green Lake 4 snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid
        Green Lake 4 lake ice extent variables historical observational centroid
        Green Lake 4 snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid
        Green Lake 4 inlet snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid
        Green Lake 4 inlet snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid
        Green Lake 4 outlet stream discharge current observational point
        Green Lake 4 outlet water chemistry variables current observational point
        Green Lake 4 outlet snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid
        Green Lake 4 outlet snowpack ablation historical observational point
        Green Lake 4 outlet snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid

      • Data for: soil

        Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.[1]

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV gl4 SOILS in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Southeast of Green Lake 4 soil chemistry, physical properties historical observational centroid
    • Green Lake 3

      Intro
      Aquatic
      Biogeochemistry
      Climate
      Hydrology

      • Data From: Green Lake 3

        Site Information: Area: 3.06 km2
        Mean Elevation: 3450m

        Summary:

        Measurement and observation location(s): Green Lake 3

        Associated Groups: City Of Boulder
        *Click on polygons and points for more information


        View 3rd Order Green Lake 3 in a larger map

        Green Lake 3
        Green Lakes Valley with Green Lake 3 in the foreground and Green Lake 2 in the background; photo credit: JG Smith


      • Data for: limnology

        Limnology (/lɪmˈnɒlədʒi/ lim-nol-ə-jee; from Greek λίμνη, limne, "lake" and λόγος, logos, "knowledge"), also called freshwater science, is the study of inland waters. It is often regarded as a division of ecology or environmental science. It covers the biological, chemical, physical, geological, and other attributes of all inland waters (running and standing waters, both fresh and saline, natural or man-made). This includes the study of lakes and ponds, rivers, springs, streams and wetlands.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV gl3 AQUATIC. in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Green Lake 3 water chemistry, chlorophyll historical observational centroid

      • Data for: biogeochemistry

        Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere). In particular, biogeochemistry is the study of the cycles of chemical elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, and their interactions with and incorporation into living things transported through earth scale biological systems in space through time. The field focuses on chemical cycles which are either driven by or have an impact on biological activity. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus cycles. Biogeochemistry is a systems science closely related to systems ecology.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV gl3 BIOGEOCHEMISTRY in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Green Lake 3 water chemistry, chlorophyll historical observational centroid
        Green Lake 3 snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid

      • Data for: climate

        Climate is a measure of the average pattern of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time. Climate is different from weather, in that weather only describes the short-term conditions of these variables in a given region.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV gl3 CLIMATE ‎ in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Green Lake 3 snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid
        Green Lake 3 water chemistry, chlorophyll historical observational centroid

      • Data for: hydrology

        Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV gl3 HYDROLOGY in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Green Lake 3 snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid
        Green Lake 3 lake ice extent variables historical observational centroid
        Green Lake 3 snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid
    • Green Lake 5

      Intro
      Aquatic
      Biogeochemistry
      Climate
      Hydrology

      • Data From: Green Lake 5

        Site Information: Area: 1.352 km2
        Mean Elevation: 3620m

        Summary:

        Measurement and observation location(s): Green Lake 5 outlet, Green Lake 5

        Associated Groups: City Of Boulder
        *Click on polygons and points for more information


        View 3rd Order Green Lake 5 in a larger map

        Green Lake 5 Map Key Green Lake 5
        Green Lake 5, photo credit: JG Smith


      • Data for: limnology

        Limnology (/lɪmˈnɒlədʒi/ lim-nol-ə-jee; from Greek λίμνη, limne, "lake" and λόγος, logos, "knowledge"), also called freshwater science, is the study of inland waters. It is often regarded as a division of ecology or environmental science. It covers the biological, chemical, physical, geological, and other attributes of all inland waters (running and standing waters, both fresh and saline, natural or man-made). This includes the study of lakes and ponds, rivers, springs, streams and wetlands.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV gl5 AQUATIC in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Green Lake 5 water chemistry, chlorophyll current/historical observational centroid

      • Data for: biogeochemistry

        Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere). In particular, biogeochemistry is the study of the cycles of chemical elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, and their interactions with and incorporation into living things transported through earth scale biological systems in space through time. The field focuses on chemical cycles which are either driven by or have an impact on biological activity. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus cycles. Biogeochemistry is a systems science closely related to systems ecology.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV gl5 BIOGEOCHEMISTRY. in a larger map
        map Key
        Green Lake 5 water chemistry, chlorophyll current/historical observational centroid
        Green Lake 5 snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid
        Green Lake 5 outlet water chemistry variables current observational point
        Green Lake 5 outlet snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid

      • Data for: climate

        Climate is a measure of the average pattern of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time. Climate is different from weather, in that weather only describes the short-term conditions of these variables in a given region.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV gl5 CLIMATE in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Green Lake 5 snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid
        Green Lake 5 water chemistry, chlorophyll current/historical observational centroid
        Green Lake 5 outlet snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid

      • Data for: hydrology

        Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV gl5 HYDROLOGY in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Green Lake 5 snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid
        Green Lake 5 snowpack ablation historical observational centroid
        Green Lake 5 snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid
        Green Lake 5 outlet water chemistry variables current observational point
        Green Lake 5 outlet snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid
        Green Lake 5 outlet snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid
        West of Green Lake 5 snowpack ablation historical observational centroid
  • Niwot Ridge (USFS - UNESCO Biosphere Reserve)

    *Click on polygons and points for more information

    Map may still be loading. If map does not load in a few seconds no map available at this time.


    View Second Order Niwot Ridge in a larger map

    Niwot Ridge is located approximately 35 km west of Boulder, Colorado, with the entire study site lying above 3000 m elevation. There is a cirque glacier (Arikaree Glacier), extensive alpine tundra, a variety of glacial landforms, glacial lakes and moraines, cirques and talus slopes, patterned ground, and permafrost. The research area is bounded on the west by the Continental Divide, with runoff on the two sides being destined for the Colorado and Mississippi Rivers. The alpine study area is reached by an unimproved road from the Mountain Research Station (2895 m) which leads to within 2 km of the main tundra research site, the Saddle (3528 m). The D-1 research site (3739 m), for which climate records are continuous from 1952, lies a farther 3 km from the road head. The Martinelli study area (3380 m) is located 1 km southwest of the Saddle, in the forest-tundra ecotone. The Green Lakes Valley lies immediately south of the western half of Niwot Ridge. It includes the Arikaree Glacier at its head (3798 m), and the wetland, Green Lake 4, and Albion research sites. The Green Lakes Valley and Martinelli sites are all within the City of Boulder Watershed which is closed to public access. Niwot Ridge, including the main alpine study site, is part of the Roosevelt National Forest and has been designated a Biosphere Reserve (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO) and an Experimental Ecology Reserve (USDA Forest Service). A context-sensitive topographic relief map can be used to access the scenic views of the areas indicated above, as well as several others.

    Ownership: USFS - UNESCO Biosphere Reserve

    Research Locations

    • Alpine zone

      Intro

      • Data From: Alpine zone

        Site Information:

        Summary:

        Measurement and observation location(s): Alpine zone

        *Click on polygons and points for more information


        View 3rd Order NWT/GLV Alpine in a larger map



    • C1

      Intro
      Biogeochemistry
      Climate
      Hydrology
      Plants

      • Data From: C1

        Site Information: Mean Elevation: 3048m

        Summary:

        The C1 climate station is located on a ridge-top in a subalpine forest 9.7 km east of the Continental Divide. Climate data exist from the C1 station for 1953 to the present, and include temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, barometric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation, soil moisture, soil temperature, and snow depth. Hydrologic data are generated from twelve ground water wells and twelve soil lysimeters installed at the site in 2010. Water samples for lab analyses are collected from ground water wells, soil lysimeters, and surface water from nearby Como Creek. Samples are analyzed at INSTAAR’s Arikaree Lab.

        The Niwot Ridge LTER operates a National Atmospheric Deposition Program National Trends Network (NADP NTN) site CO90 at this station, which has been in operation since 2006, and is one of three NADP NTN sites at Niwot Ridge.

        Atmospheric and ecological research operations at the site are run in cooperation with the LTER and University of Colorado. There is an NRCS Snotel site located at C1. NOAA operates several monitoring projects at the C1 location including: the Global Monitoring Division (ESRL GMD), Carbon Cycle Greenhouse Gases (CCGG), Halocarbon and other Atmospheric Trace Species (HATS), and Ozone and Water Vapor groups measurements of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, stratospheric ozone depletors, and surface ozone measurements, a National Weather Service Cooperative Observers Network (NWS COOP) precipitation gauge, and a US Climate Research Network (USCRN) weather station. South of the C1 station is an AmeriFlux tower (forest ecology and atmospheric flux).

        Measurement and observation location(s): C1, C1 chart recorder, C1 data loggers (CR23X and CR1000), C1 ground water wells, C1 lysimeters, C1 NADP, C1 NOAA, C1 site, C1 Snotel, C1 wells, Ameriflux tower, Como Creek

        Associated Groups: National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationThe Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and Pawnee National Grassland
        *Click on polygons and points for more information


        View 3rd order NWT C1 in a larger map

        C1 Map Key C1
        C1 site


      • Data for: biogeochemistry

        Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere). In particular, biogeochemistry is the study of the cycles of chemical elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, and their interactions with and incorporation into living things transported through earth scale biological systems in space through time. The field focuses on chemical cycles which are either driven by or have an impact on biological activity. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus cycles. Biogeochemistry is a systems science closely related to systems ecology.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT c1 BIOGEOCHEMISTRY in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        C1 canopy precipitation, nitrogen historical observational centroid

      • Data for: climate

        Climate is a measure of the average pattern of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time. Climate is different from weather, in that weather only describes the short-term conditions of these variables in a given region.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT c1 CLIMATE ‎ in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Ameriflux tower snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid
        C1 snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid
        C1 canopy precipitation, nitrogen historical observational centroid
        C1 chart recorder climate variables current/historical observational point
        C1 data logger climate variables current/historical observational point

      • Data for: hydrology

        Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT c1 HYDROLOGY in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Ameriflux tower snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid
        C1 snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid
        C1 ground water wells ground water well variables current observational centroid of point cluster
        C1 lysimeters lysimeter variables current observational centroid of point cluster
        C1 Snotel Snotel SWE variables current observational point

      • Data for: plantvegetation

        Plant/vegetation ecology is the study of plant distribution and abundances, plant responses to environmental factors, and the interactions among and between plants and other organisms in their environment. In plant ecology the focus may be on just one or a few particular species of interest, while in vegetation ecology, there is a stronger focus on dynamics within the plant community as a whole. At Niwot Ridge there is a rich history of plant and vegetation ecology, beginning with the characterization and mapping of alpine plant communities as early as the 1960s, moving later into more experimental and dynamic approaches to plant/vegetation ecology, often in the context of changing climatic and environmental conditions.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT c1 PLANTS in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        C1 species composition historical observational centroid
    • Como Creek

      Intro

      • Data From: Como Creek

        Site Information:

        Summary:

        The Como Creek site is in the subalpine zone. Como Creek originates just to the North and East of Green Lakes valley on the southeast flank of Niwot Ridge approximately 8 km east of the Continental Divide and 26 km west of Boulder, CO. The catchment falls within the Niwot Ridge Biosphere Reservation. Approximately 80% of the catchment is below treeline. The catchment is primarily coniferous forest that is about 100 years old and has a mixture of trees dominated by Engelmann spruce, sub-alpine fir, limber pine and lodgepole pine, and aspen. The landscape near treeline is characterized by high-elevation meadows bounded by ribbon forest. These meadow soils are classied as a mixed Type Humicryepts, sandy skeletal in texture. The soil is loamy sand to gravel with little clay content and is moderately well-drained.

        Measurement and observation location(s): Como Creek

        *Click on polygons and points for more information


        View 3rd order NWT Como Creek in a larger map

        Como Creek
        Como creek, photo credit: Bill Bowman

    • D1

      Intro
      Animals
      Climate
      Hydrology
      Plants
      Soils

      • Data From: D1

        Site Information: Mean Elevation: 3750m

        Summary:

        D1 is an alpine tundra site located 2.6 km from the Continental Divide. This is the highest continuously operating weather station in North America. Topographic setting: ridge-top. Climate data completeness is good from 1953 to the present. Climate parameters measured include temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, barometric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation, soil moisture, and temperature.

        Measurement and observation location(s): D1, D1 chart recorder, D1 data loggers (CR23X and CR1000)

        Associated Groups: The Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and Pawnee National Grassland
        *Click on polygons and points for more information


        View 3rd order NWT D1 in a larger map

        D1 Map Key D1
        D1 site


      • Data for: animals

        Animal ecology
        Web definitions
        Ecology is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environment, such as the interactions organisms have with each other and with their abiotic environment. ...
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_Ecology

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level GLV D1 ANIMALS in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        D1 species composition, condition historical observational centroid

      • Data for: climate

        Climate is a measure of the average pattern of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time. Climate is different from weather, in that weather only describes the short-term conditions of these variables in a given region.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT d1 CLIMATE in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        D1 chart recorder climate variables current/historical observational point
        D1 data logger climate variables current/historical observational point

      • Data for: hydrology

        Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        D1 soil moisture variables historical observational centroid

      • Data for: plantvegetation

        Plant/vegetation ecology is the study of plant distribution and abundances, plant responses to environmental factors, and the interactions among and between plants and other organisms in their environment. In plant ecology the focus may be on just one or a few particular species of interest, while in vegetation ecology, there is a stronger focus on dynamics within the plant community as a whole. At Niwot Ridge there is a rich history of plant and vegetation ecology, beginning with the characterization and mapping of alpine plant communities as early as the 1960s, moving later into more experimental and dynamic approaches to plant/vegetation ecology, often in the context of changing climatic and environmental conditions.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT d1 PLANTS in a larger map
        map Key
        2nd level 3rd level Discipline 4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Niwot Ridge D1 plants D1 species composition historical observational centroid

      • Data for: soil

        Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.[1]

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT d1 SOILS in a larger map
        map Key
        2nd level 3rd level Discipline 4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Niwot Ridge D1 soils D1 soil moisture variables historical observational centroid
    • E slope of Niwot Ridge

      Intro
    • N slope of Niwot Ridge

      Intro

      • Data From: N slope of Niwot Ridge

        Site Information:

        Summary:

        Measurement and observation location(s): North of saddle, N slope of Niwot Ridge

        *Click on polygons and points for more information

        View 3rd order NWT N Slope in a larger map


    • Soddie

      Intro
      Biogeochemistry
      Climate
      Hydrology

      • Data From: Soddie

        Site Information:

        Summary:

        The Soddie Laboratory is located on the southern slope of Niwot Ridge, below treeline, at 3345 m, in an open meadow surrounded by ribbon forest, which prevents lateral inputs of blowing snow. The site is on a 10º southwest facing slope. The meadow has an array of snow lysimeters and a meteorological tower which are connected to an adjacent underground laboratory (Erickson, 2004).

        Measurement and observation location(s): Soddie site, Soddie lab, Soddie data logger, Tundralab

        *Click on polygons and points for more information


        View 3rd order NWT Soddie in a larger map

        Soddie Map Key


      • Data for: biogeochemistry

        Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere). In particular, biogeochemistry is the study of the cycles of chemical elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, and their interactions with and incorporation into living things transported through earth scale biological systems in space through time. The field focuses on chemical cycles which are either driven by or have an impact on biological activity. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus cycles. Biogeochemistry is a systems science closely related to systems ecology.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Soddie site snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid

      • Data for: climate

        Climate is a measure of the average pattern of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time. Climate is different from weather, in that weather only describes the short-term conditions of these variables in a given region.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT Soddie CLIMATE in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Soddie data logger climate variables current/historical observational point
        Soddie site snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid

      • Data for: hydrology

        Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT Soddie HYDROLOGY in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Soddie site snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid
        Soddie site snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid
    • Subalpine forest

      Intro
      Biogeochemistry
      Plants
      Soils

      • Data From: Subalpine forest

        Site Information:

        Summary:

        Measurement and observation location(s): Subalpine forest

        *Click on polygons and points for more information


        View 3rd Order NWT/GLV Subalpine in a larger map




      • Data for: biogeochemistry

        Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere). In particular, biogeochemistry is the study of the cycles of chemical elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, and their interactions with and incorporation into living things transported through earth scale biological systems in space through time. The field focuses on chemical cycles which are either driven by or have an impact on biological activity. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus cycles. Biogeochemistry is a systems science closely related to systems ecology.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information

        ​No points available but data has been collected

        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Subalpine soil moisture, chemistry variables historical observational NA
        Subalpine krummholz factors, soil chemistry historical observational NA

      • Data for: plantvegetation

        Plant/vegetation ecology is the study of plant distribution and abundances, plant responses to environmental factors, and the interactions among and between plants and other organisms in their environment. In plant ecology the focus may be on just one or a few particular species of interest, while in vegetation ecology, there is a stronger focus on dynamics within the plant community as a whole. At Niwot Ridge there is a rich history of plant and vegetation ecology, beginning with the characterization and mapping of alpine plant communities as early as the 1960s, moving later into more experimental and dynamic approaches to plant/vegetation ecology, often in the context of changing climatic and environmental conditions.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT Subalpine PLANTS in a larger map

        ​No points available but data has been collected

        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Subalpine krummholz factors, soil chemistry historical observational NA

      • Data for: soil

        Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.[1]

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information

        ​No points available but data has been collected

        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Subalpine krummholz factors, soil chemistry historical observational NA
        Subalpine soil moisture, chemistry variables historical observational NA
    • Saddle (SDL)

      Intro
      Animals
      Atmosphere
      Biogeochemistry
      Climate
      Geomorphology
      Hydrology
      Microbes
      Plants
      Soils

      • Data From: Saddle

        Site Information: Mean Elevation: 3500m

        Summary:

        The Niwot Ridge saddle is located 5.6 km from the Continental Divide. The area is located along a ridge-top, but in a shallow saddle between the east and west knolls. There is a 10,000 ft2 tundra laboratory on the south side of the saddle, which serves as a staging area for research in all weather conditions. In addition, there is an 80 ft2 subnivean laboratory equipped with snow melt lysimeters that drain into dedicated tipping buckets. These laboratories have year-round motorized access 120-volt line power. There is an Aerometrics wet-chemistry precipitation collector as part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), which has operated continuously since 1984 and is the highest site in the NADP network. The timing, duration, and amount of snow cover has been manipulated since 1994 with a 2.6 x 60 m snowfence, providing a proxy for climate change. There are several meteorological stations at the Saddle site. Climate data exist from 1981 to the present and include temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, barometric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation, soil moisture, and soil temperature. NOAA measures surface ozone as well.

        Research and Setting:

        Soils are Cryochrepts and are approximately 2.0 m in depth over granitic parent material. Soil C in the top 100 mm of soil ranges from 130 to 200 g/kg and soil N pools range from 9 to 15 g/kg [Burns, 1980].

        The Saddle is a major research area on Niwot Ridge. Its western half is a snow accumulation area (up to 10 m in some years); its eastern half remains free of snow for most of the winter. Thus, the Saddle contains several quite different vegetation communities within a fairly small area. During the early 1970s, Pat Webber and Diane Ebert-May used ordination techniques to broadly define six vegetation communities, or noda, in the Saddle: fellfield, dry meadow, moist meadow, shrub tundra, wet meadow, and snowbed. Fellfield contains low-statured cushion plants, such as <i>Silene acaulis</i>, and mat-forming plants, such as <i>Trifolium dasyphyllum</i>. Dry meadow is characterized by high cover of the sedge <i>Kobresia myosuroides</i>. Moist meadow is dominated by the forb <i>Geum rossii</i> and the grass <i>Deschampsia cespitosa</i>. Shrub tundra contains high willow (<i>Salix planifolia/Salix glauca</i>) cover. Wet meadow is characterized by abundant <i>Carex scopulorum</i>, a sedge, and <i>Caltha leptosepala</i>, a forb. Snowbed is dominated either by the forb <i>Sibbaldia procumbens</i> or the sedge <i>Carex pyrenaica</i>. Belowground allocation and processes may be particularly important in alpine vegetation, as evidenced by high root:shoot ratios in alpine plant species.

        Measurement and observation location(s): Saddle, Saddle site, Saddle chart recorder, Saddle data loggers (CR23X and CR1000), Saddle grid, Saddle grid plots, Saddle nodal plots, Saddle snowfence, Saddle stream (007), Saddle wells, Saddle NADP, Subnivean lab, Subnivean data logger, East knoll, West knoll, Tundralab

        Associated Groups: The Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and Pawnee National Grassland
        *Click on polygons and points for more information


        View 3rd order NWT Saddle in a larger map

        Saddle Map Key Saddle
        Saddle site


      • Data for: animals

        Animal ecology
        Web definitions
        Ecology is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environment, such as the interactions organisms have with each other and with their abiotic environment. ...
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_Ecology

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT Saddle ANIMALS in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        East knoll species composition, condition historical observational centroid
        Saddle species composition, condition historical observational centroid
        Saddle snowfence microarthropod densities historical observational centroid of point cluster

      • Data for: atmosphere

        Atmospheric sciences is an umbrella term for the study of the atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems. Meteorology includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics with a major focus on weather forecasting. Climatology is the study of atmospheric changes (both long and short-term) that define average climates and their change over time, due to both natural and anthropogenic climate variability. Aeronomy is the study of the upper layers of the atmosphere, where dissociation and ionization are important. Atmospheric science has been extended to the field of planetary science and the study of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT saddle ATMOSPHERE in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Saddle climate, nitrogen variables historical observational centroid

      • Data for: biogeochemistry

        Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere). In particular, biogeochemistry is the study of the cycles of chemical elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, and their interactions with and incorporation into living things transported through earth scale biological systems in space through time. The field focuses on chemical cycles which are either driven by or have an impact on biological activity. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus cycles. Biogeochemistry is a systems science closely related to systems ecology.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Saddle NADP variables current observational centroid
        Saddle methane flux historical experimental centroid
        Saddle soil chemistry, climate variables historical experimental centroid
        Saddle soil N2O, CO2 conc., fluxes historical experimental centroid
        Saddle climate, nitrogen variables historical observational centroid
        Saddle NPP, root production, nitrogen historical observational/experimental centroid
        Saddle water, nitrogen, CO2 historical observational/experimental centroid
        Saddle grid soil chemistry, physical properties historical observational centroid of point cluster
        Saddle grid snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid of point cluster
        Saddle nodal plots soil chemistry, physical properties historical observational centroid of point cluster
        Saddle snowfence soil chemistry variables historical experimental centroid of point cluster
        Saddle snowfence soil moisture, chemistry variables historical observational centroid
        Saddle snowfence snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid of point cluster
        Subnivean site snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid

      • Data for: climate

        Climate is a measure of the average pattern of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time. Climate is different from weather, in that weather only describes the short-term conditions of these variables in a given region.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT Saddle CLIMATE in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Saddle soil chemistry, climate variables historical experimental centroid
        Saddle climate, nitrogen variables historical observational centroid
        Saddle chart recorder climate variables current/historical observational point
        Saddle data logger climate variables current/historical observational point
        Saddle grid snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid of point cluster
        Saddle snowfence snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid of point cluster
        Saddle snowfence temperature variables historical experimental centroid of point cluster
        Subnivean data logger climate variables current observational point
        Subnivean site snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid

      • Data for: geomorphology

        Geomorphology (from Greek: γῆ, ge, "earth"; μορφή, morfé, "form"; and λόγος, logos, "study") is the scientific study of landforms and the processes that shape them. Geomorphologists seek to understand why landscapes look the way they do, to understand landform history and dynamics and to predict changes through a combination of field observations, physical experiments and numerical modeling. Geomorphology is practiced within physical geography, geology, geodesy, engineering geology, archaeology and geotechnical engineering. This broad base of interest contributes to many research style and interests within the field.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT Saddle GEOMORPH in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Saddle grid map attributes historical observational centroid of point cluster

      • Data for: hydrology

        Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT Saddle HYDROLOGY in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Saddle soil N2O, CO2 conc., fluxes historical experimental centroid
        Saddle soil moisture variables historical observational centroid
        Saddle grid snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid of point cluster
        Saddle grid snow depths current/historical observational centroid of point cluster
        Saddle grid snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid of point cluster
        Saddle ground water wells ground water well variables current observational centroid of point cluster
        Saddle lysimeters lysimeter variables current observational centroid of point cluster
        Saddle nodal plots soil moisture variables historical observational centroid of point cluster
        Saddle snowfence snow horizon chemistry, SWE current experimental centroid of point cluster
        Saddle snowfence snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid of point cluster
        Saddle snowfence snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid of point cluster
        Subnivean site snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid
        Subnivean site snow pit chemistry, SWE historical observational centroid

      • Data for: microbial

        Microbial ecology is the ecology of microorganisms: their relationship with one another and with their environment. It concerns the three major domains of life—Eukaryota, Archaea, and Bacteria—as well as viruses.[2]

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT Saddle MICROBES in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Saddle litter, roots, fungi, bacteria historical experimental centroid
        Saddle water, nitrogen, CO2 historical observational/experimental centroid

      • Data for: plantvegetation

        Plant/vegetation ecology is the study of plant distribution and abundances, plant responses to environmental factors, and the interactions among and between plants and other organisms in their environment. In plant ecology the focus may be on just one or a few particular species of interest, while in vegetation ecology, there is a stronger focus on dynamics within the plant community as a whole. At Niwot Ridge there is a rich history of plant and vegetation ecology, beginning with the characterization and mapping of alpine plant communities as early as the 1960s, moving later into more experimental and dynamic approaches to plant/vegetation ecology, often in the context of changing climatic and environmental conditions.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT Saddle PLANTS in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        East knoll Dryas reproduction variables historical experimental centroid
        Saddle NPP, vegetation classes current observational centroid
        Saddle litter, roots, fungi, bacteria historical experimental centroid
        Saddle species composition historical experimental centroid
        Saddle NPP, root production, nitrogen historical observational/experimental centroid
        Saddle grid NPP variables current observational centroid of point cluster
        Saddle grid species composition current observational centroid of point cluster
        Saddle grid map attributes historical observational centroid of point cluster
        Saddle nodal plots NPP variables historical observational centroid of point cluster
        Saddle nodal plots phenology variables historical observational centroid of point cluster
        Saddle snowfence NDVI variables historical experimental centroid of point cluster
        Saddle snowfence phenology variables historical experimental centroid of point cluster
        Saddle snowfence species composition historical experimental centroid of point cluster
        Saddle snowfence species richness, NPP historical experimental centroid of point cluster

      • Data for: soil

        Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.[1]

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT Saddle SOILS in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Saddle methane flux historical experimental centroid
        Saddle soil chemistry, climate variables historical experimental centroid
        Saddle soil N2O, CO2 conc., fluxes historical experimental centroid
        Saddle soil moisture variables historical observational centroid
        Saddle water, nitrogen, CO2 historical observational/experimental centroid
        Saddle grid soil chemistry, physical properties historical observational centroid of point cluster
        Saddle nodal plots soil chemistry, physical properties historical observational centroid of point cluster
        Saddle nodal plots soil moisture variables historical observational centroid of point cluster
        Saddle snowfence soil chemistry variables historical experimental centroid of point cluster
        Saddle snowfence temperature variables historical experimental centroid of point cluster
        Saddle snowfence soil moisture, chemistry variables historical observational centroid
    • Treeline

      Intro
      Biogeochemistry
      Plants
      Soils

      • Data From: Treeline

        Site Information:

        Summary:

        Measurement and observation location(s): Treeline

        *Click on polygons and points for more information


        View 3rd Order NWT/GLV Tree Line in a larger map




      • Data for: biogeochemistry

        Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere). In particular, biogeochemistry is the study of the cycles of chemical elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, and their interactions with and incorporation into living things transported through earth scale biological systems in space through time. The field focuses on chemical cycles which are either driven by or have an impact on biological activity. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus cycles. Biogeochemistry is a systems science closely related to systems ecology.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information

        ​No points available but data has been collected.

        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Treeline krummholz factors, soil chemistry historical observational NA
        Treeline soil moisture, chemistry variables historical observational NA


      • Data for: plantvegetation

        Plant/vegetation ecology is the study of plant distribution and abundances, plant responses to environmental factors, and the interactions among and between plants and other organisms in their environment. In plant ecology the focus may be on just one or a few particular species of interest, while in vegetation ecology, there is a stronger focus on dynamics within the plant community as a whole. At Niwot Ridge there is a rich history of plant and vegetation ecology, beginning with the characterization and mapping of alpine plant communities as early as the 1960s, moving later into more experimental and dynamic approaches to plant/vegetation ecology, often in the context of changing climatic and environmental conditions.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT Treeline PLANTS in a larger map

        ​No points available but data has been collected.

        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Treeline krummholz factors, soil chemistry historical observational NA


      • Data for: soil

        Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.[1]

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT Treeline SOILS in a larger map

        ​No points available but data has been collected.

        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Treeline krummholz factors, soil chemistry historical observational NA
        Treeline soil moisture, chemistry variables historical observational NA

    • S slope of Niwot Ridge

      Intro

      • Data From: S slope of Niwot Ridge

        Site Information:

        Summary:

        Measurement and observation location(s): Kiwi van, South of saddle, S slope of Niwot Ridge

        *Click on polygons and points for more information


        View 3rd order NWT S Slope in a larger map



    • Tvan

      Intro
      Animals
      Biogeochemistry
      Climate
      Hydrology
      Plants
      Soils

      • Data From: Tvan

        Site Information:

        Summary:

        T-Van (3480 m asl) is an alpine fellfield characterized by strong wind scour and low snow retention. The name T-Van originates from “treeline van”, and the site marks the boundary between krummholz to the east and alpine tundra to the west. The site name also refers to two small trailers (vans) delivered in 1967 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to house greenhouse gas-sampling equipment. In that year, the NOAA Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Gas (CCGG) group established Niwot Ridge (at T-Van) as the first of their cooperative air-sampling network of sites. Weekly flask measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and bi-weekly measurements of the 13C/12C isotopic ratio of CO2 have been collected at T-Van ever since. Additional instrumentation at or near T-Van includes two eddy covariance towers and an Autonomous Inexpensive Robust CO2 Analyzer (AIRCOA).

        Measurement and observation location(s): East of Tvan, Tvan, Fahey data logger, North of Tvan, Nutnet site, Trough, Tvan data logger, NEON advanced tower, NEON site

        Associated Groups: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
        *Click on polygons and points for more information


        View 3rd order NWT Tvan in a larger map

        Tvan Map Key Tvan
        T-Van, photo credit: John Knowles


      • Data for: animals

        Animal ecology
        Web definitions
        Ecology is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environment, such as the interactions organisms have with each other and with their abiotic environment. ...
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_Ecology

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT Tvan ANIMALS in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Northeast of Tvan esker, krummholz distances historical observational centroid
        Northeast of Tvan litter variables historical observational centroid
        Northeast of Tvan species composition, condition historical observational centroid
        Trough microarthropod densities historical observational centroid

      • Data for: biogeochemistry

        Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere). In particular, biogeochemistry is the study of the cycles of chemical elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, and their interactions with and incorporation into living things transported through earth scale biological systems in space through time. The field focuses on chemical cycles which are either driven by or have an impact on biological activity. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus cycles. Biogeochemistry is a systems science closely related to systems ecology.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Northeast of Tvan NPP variables historical experimental centroid
        Northeast of Tvan root, carbon, nitrogen variables historical observational centroid
        Northeast of Tvan soil chemistry, physical properties historical observational centroid
        Nutnet site NPP variables current experimental centroid of point cluster
        Trough soil N2O, CO2 conc., fluxes historical experimental centroid

      • Data for: climate

        Climate is a measure of the average pattern of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time. Climate is different from weather, in that weather only describes the short-term conditions of these variables in a given region.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT Tvan CLIMATE in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Fahey data logger climate variables current observational point
        Northeast of Tvan snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid
        Northeast of Tvan soil temperature variables historical observational centroid
        Tvan data logger climate variables current observational point
        Tvan east tower climate variables current observational point
        Tvan west tower climate variables current observational point

      • Data for: hydrology

        Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT Tvan HYDROLOGY in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Northeast of Tvan snow profile, grain, SWE vars current observational centroid
        Trough soil N2O, CO2 conc., fluxes historical experimental centroid

      • Data for: plantvegetation

        Plant/vegetation ecology is the study of plant distribution and abundances, plant responses to environmental factors, and the interactions among and between plants and other organisms in their environment. In plant ecology the focus may be on just one or a few particular species of interest, while in vegetation ecology, there is a stronger focus on dynamics within the plant community as a whole. At Niwot Ridge there is a rich history of plant and vegetation ecology, beginning with the characterization and mapping of alpine plant communities as early as the 1960s, moving later into more experimental and dynamic approaches to plant/vegetation ecology, often in the context of changing climatic and environmental conditions.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT Tvan PLANTS in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Northeast of Tvan vegetation classes, NPP current observational centroid
        Northeast of Tvan NPP variables historical experimental centroid
        Northeast of Tvan species composition historical experimental centroid
        Northeast of Tvan esker, krummholz distances historical observational centroid
        Northeast of Tvan litter variables historical observational centroid
        Nutnet site NPP variables current experimental centroid of point cluster
        Trough wood decomposiition variables historical observational centroid

      • Data for: soil

        Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.[1]

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information
        View 4th Level NWT Tvan SOILS in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Northeast of Tvan root, carbon, nitrogen variables historical observational centroid
        Northeast of Tvan soil chemistry, physical properties historical observational centroid
        Northeast of Tvan soil temperature variables historical observational centroid
        Trough soil N2O, CO2 conc., fluxes historical experimental centroid
    • Niwot Ridge (NWT)

      Intro
      Animals
      Biogeochemistry
      Hydrology
      insects
      Microbes
      Plants
      Soils

      • Data From: Niwot Ridge

        Site Information:

        Summary:

        Measurement and observation location(s): Niwot Ridge, Alpine zone, C1, C1 NOAA, C1 NADP, C1 lysimeters, C1 ground water wells, C1 chart recorder, C1 data loggers (CR23X and CR1000), C1 site, C1 Snotel, C1 wells, Ameriflux tower, Como Creek, D1, D1 chart recorder, D1 data loggers (CR23X and CR1000), East knoll, East of Tvan, E slope of Niwot Ridge, Fahey data logger, Kiwi van, N slope of Niwot Ridge, North of C1, North of Tvan, North of saddle, Nutnet site, Saddle, Saddle chart recorder, Saddle data loggers (CR23X and CR1000), Saddle grid, Saddle grid plots, Saddle NADP, Saddle nodal plots, Saddle site, Saddle snowfence, Saddle wells, Soddie data logger, S slope of Niwot Ridge, Soddie lab, Soddie site, South of saddle, Subalpine forest, Subnivean data logger, Subnivean lab, Treeline, Trough, Tundralab, Tvan, Tvan towers data loggers (CR3000), West knoll

        Associated Groups: The Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and Pawnee National Grassland
        *Click on polygons and points for more information


        View 3rd order NWT Niwot Ridge in a larger map




      • Data for: animals

        Animal ecology
        Web definitions
        Ecology is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environment, such as the interactions organisms have with each other and with their abiotic environment. ...
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_Ecology

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information

        View 4th Level NWT nwt ANIMALS in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        North of saddle litter variables historical observational centroid

      • Data for: biogeochemistry

        Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere). In particular, biogeochemistry is the study of the cycles of chemical elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, and their interactions with and incorporation into living things transported through earth scale biological systems in space through time. The field focuses on chemical cycles which are either driven by or have an impact on biological activity. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus cycles. Biogeochemistry is a systems science closely related to systems ecology.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information

        View 4th Level NWT Niwot Ridge BIOGEOCHEMISTRY in a larger map BIOGEOCHEMISTRY in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        North of saddle water, nitrogen, CO2 historical observational centroid
        North of saddle NPP, root production, nitrogen historical observational/experimental centroid
        North of soddie nitrogen variables historical experimental point
        Northwest of saddle nitrogen variables historical experimental point
        South of saddle N2O, methane variables historical experimental centroid
        South of saddle soil chemistry, climate variables historical experimental centroid
        South of saddle water, nitrogen, CO2 historical experimental/observational centroid
        South of saddle NPP, root production, nitrogen historical observational/experimental centroid
        Southwest of Lefthand Res. nitrogen variables historical experimental point

      • Data for: hydrology

        Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        South of saddle soil moisture variables historical observational centroid

      • Data for: entomology

        Bugs and stuff

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information

        View 4th Level NWT Niwot Ridge INSECTS in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Niwot Ridge Front Range Holocene insect fossils historical observational centroid

      • Data for: microbial

        Microbial ecology is the ecology of microorganisms: their relationship with one another and with their environment. It concerns the three major domains of life—Eukaryota, Archaea, and Bacteria—as well as viruses.[2]

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information

        View 4th Level NWT Niwot Ridge MICROBES in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        North of saddle water, nitrogen, CO2 historical observational centroid
        South of saddle water, nitrogen, CO2 historical observational centroid

      • Data for: plantvegetation

        Plant/vegetation ecology is the study of plant distribution and abundances, plant responses to environmental factors, and the interactions among and between plants and other organisms in their environment. In plant ecology the focus may be on just one or a few particular species of interest, while in vegetation ecology, there is a stronger focus on dynamics within the plant community as a whole. At Niwot Ridge there is a rich history of plant and vegetation ecology, beginning with the characterization and mapping of alpine plant communities as early as the 1960s, moving later into more experimental and dynamic approaches to plant/vegetation ecology, often in the context of changing climatic and environmental conditions.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information

        View 4th Level NWT Niwot Ridge PLANTS in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Niwot Ridge species list current observational centroid
        North of saddle species composition historical experimental centroid
        North of saddle litter variables historical observational centroid
        North of saddle NPP, root production, nitrogen historical observational/experimental centroid
        North of soddie nitrogen variables historical experimental point
        North of soddie species composition historical experimental point
        Northwest of saddle nitrogen variables historical experimental point
        Northwest of saddle species composition historical experimental point
        South of saddle NPP, vegetation classes current observational centroid
        South of saddle NPP variables historical experimental centroid
        South of saddle phenology variables historical experimental centroid
        South of saddle species composition historical experimental centroid
        South of saddle species diversity historical experimental centroid
        South of saddle NPP, root production, nitrogen historical observational/experimental centroid
        Southwest of Lefthand Res. nitrogen variables historical experimental point
        Southwest of Lefthand Res. species composition historical experimental point

      • Data for: soil

        Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.[1]

        Measurement and observation location(s):

        *Click on polygons and points for more information

        View 4th Level NWT Niwot Ridge SOILS in a larger mape=UTF8&t=h&ll=40.048268,-105.58116&spn=0.092307,0.166971&source=embed" style="color:#0000FF;text-align:left">4th Level NWT Niwot Ridge SOILS in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        North of saddle nitrogen variables historical experimental centroid
        North of saddle water, nitrogen, CO2 historical observational centroid
        North of soddie nitrogen variables historical experimental point
        Northwest of saddle nitrogen variables historical experimental point
        South of saddle N2O, methane variables historical experimental centroid
        South of saddle nitrogen, moisture variables historical experimental centroid
        South of saddle soil chemistry, climate variables historical experimental centroid
        South of saddle soil moisture variables historical observational centroid
        South of saddle water, nitrogen, CO2 historical observational centroid
        Southwest of Lefthand Res. nitrogen variables historical experimental point

      Related Photo Galleries.

      Niwot Ridge Landscapes

      Browse The Complete set

      • Sunrise in the Indian Peaks Wilderness
        Sunrise in the Indian Peaks Wilderness
      • Cloud glow above Arapaho, Albion, Kiowa, and Navajo Peaks
        Cloud glow above Arapaho, Albion, Kiowa, and Navajo Peaks
      • Kiowa and Navajo Peaks (13,276 and 13,409 ft) dominate the skyline above a pool on Niwot Ridge
        Kiowa and Navajo Peaks (13,276 and 13,409 ft) dominate the skyline above a pool on Niwot Ridge
      • Indian Peaks, with (r to l) Navajo, Apache, Shoshoni, and Pawnee
        Indian Peaks, with (r to l) Navajo, Apache, Shoshoni, and Pawnee
      • Continental Divide and upper Green Lakes Valley
        Continental Divide and upper Green Lakes Valley

  • Mountain Research Station

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    The Mountain Research Station (MRS) was founded in 1921 as an interdisciplinary facility of the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR) at CU Boulder. Located at 2900 m (9500 feet) in the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains, the MRS is devoted to the advancement of the study of mountain ecosystems and provides research and educational opportunities for scientists, students, and the general public.

    The mission of the MRS is to facilitate research and education to better understand the unique patterns and processes of biotic and physical systems in mountains, and how environmental changes may influence these patterns and processes. Research at the MRS is performed by a multitude of investigators from numerous organizations, including NSF sponsored programs such as the Niwot Ridge Long-Term Ecological Research Program, the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Program, the National Ecological Observatory Network, and many individual investigators. The MRS is in charge of the Mountain Climate Program, established in 1952 to provide long-term climate data from the montane, subalpine, and alpine zones of the Colorado Front Range. Four main meteorological stations have been maintained continuously since the inception of the program. The MRS runs undergraduate field courses and provides site support for visiting K-12, undergraduate, and graduate courses. Additionally the MRS organizes research conferences, including the Guild or Rocky Mountain Ecologists and Evolutionary Biologists meeting held in the autumn.

    Visit the Mountain Research Station website to learn more.

    Ownership: University of Colorado

    Research Locations

    • Mountain Research Station (MRS)

      Intro
      Biogeochemistry
      Plants

      • Data From: Mountain Research Station

        Site Information: Mean Elevation: 2895m

        Summary:

        A field research facility dedicated to the advancement of mountain environmental science.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

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        View 3rd Order MRS in a larger map

        Mountain Research Station
        Student cabin at the MRS, photo credit: JG Smith


      • Data for: biogeochemistry

        Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere). In particular, biogeochemistry is the study of the cycles of chemical elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, and their interactions with and incorporation into living things transported through earth scale biological systems in space through time. The field focuses on chemical cycles which are either driven by or have an impact on biological activity. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus cycles. Biogeochemistry is a systems science closely related to systems ecology.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

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        View 4th Level MRS mrs BIOGEOCHEMISTRY in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Mountain Research Station litter variables historical observational centroid

      • Data for: plantvegetation

        Plant/vegetation ecology is the study of plant distribution and abundances, plant responses to environmental factors, and the interactions among and between plants and other organisms in their environment. In plant ecology the focus may be on just one or a few particular species of interest, while in vegetation ecology, there is a stronger focus on dynamics within the plant community as a whole. At Niwot Ridge there is a rich history of plant and vegetation ecology, beginning with the characterization and mapping of alpine plant communities as early as the 1960s, moving later into more experimental and dynamic approaches to plant/vegetation ecology, often in the context of changing climatic and environmental conditions.

        Measurement and observation location(s):

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        View 4th Level MRS mrs PLANTS in a larger map
        map Key
        4th level Data description Data status Data type Coordinate type
        Mountain Research Station litter variables historical observational centroid
Instaar
Instaar
NSF
CU Boulder

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Cooperative Agreement #DEB-1637686. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in the material are those of the author(s) and do not necesarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Please contact lternwt@colorado.edu with questions, comments, or for technical assistance regarding this website.

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